ADU-nun əməkdaşının məqaləsi Polşada yüksək qiymətləndirilib – MƏTN
Azərbaycan Dillər Universitetinin gənc alimi Nigar Mədətovanın məqaləsi Polşanın Lodz Universitetinin Praqmatika departamentinin müdiri Dr. Anna Eva Viçorek (Anna Ewa Wieczorek) tərəfindən yüksək qiymətləndirilib. Həmin məqaləni təqdim edirik.
Azerbaijan University of Languages
Key words: functional styles, speech, language, culture, personality
The Importance of Learning Functional Styles of Speech in the Development of Language and Cross-Cultural Relations
Since language cannot exist and develop outside culture, and culture, in its turn, cannot fail to be directly influenced by language, the close interconnection of language and culture is expressed by the impact of culture on the development of human society and the influence of language on the rapprochement of nations, communication of people and dialogue of cultures. The close interconnection of language, speech, culture and a man, namely the idea of anthropocentricity of language, is noted by the outstanding linguist and philosopher of modern times Noam Chomsky: “Language is purposeful in the sense that almost always in human speech there is a certain intention to convey something to someone else, changing his behavior, his thoughts or his general attitude to the situation. ” [12; 87].
Certainly, it is a mistake to represent the use of language by a person as purely informative, in reality or in intention. The human language can also be used to educate, to persuade or simply to clarify one's own thoughts for others. If we hope to understand the human language and the psychological abilities on which it is based, we must first ask what it is, and not how or for what purposes it is used.
Robert Dickson, a British linguist, in his monograph “What is language? A new approach to describing the language” writes: “My goal is to see how the language is used by man, how it is interconnected with the rest of the concepts. I'm not trying to say if a person is using the language correctly. I try to look for interpretations of ideas about how a person should speak, and then describe what he really says” [16;16].
The study of approaches to the notions of culture and language, which makes it possible to identify the general cultural mechanism of the category of language within the theoretical and cultural systems, and a specific direction, expressed in the analysis of the presented phenomenon on the level of culture influences on the conceptual and logical structure of speech styles. “Language is a fact of culture because: 1) it is an integral part of the culture that we inherit from our ancestors; 2) language is the main instrument through which we assimilate culture; 3) language is the most important of all cultural phenomena”[8;62]. “Linguoculturology studies language as a phenomenon of culture. All linguistics is permeated with cultural and historical content, because its subject has a language that is the condition, the basis and the product of culture” [8;8].
However, there are many approaches to understanding and defining this notion. The variety of approaches to understanding culture, proposed by V.A. Maslova [8;13-15], is generalized and given by us in the following classification. Among the approaches such approaches as descriptive, dialogical, typological, symbolic, informational, hermeneutical, normative and others should be considered significant ones.
Dialogical approach is characterized by the fact that culture is a means, serving for the formation and development of relations between people and nations (dialogue of cultures). Azerbaijani cultural critic M. Nazarov writes on this subject: “The ideological unity of the content of the constituent parts of the culture of all people in our society creates the condition for their closer rapprochement and accelerated development, but this does not mean the elimination of national specifics. In modern conditions, the “exchange of cultural interaction”, conditioned by the development of the interests of all countries of the world, has become an objective need” [1;17].
As Maslova notes: “The more developed the national culture is, the more it gravitates toward a dialogue with other cultures, becoming richer from these contacts, because it absorbs their achievements” [8;8]. Supporters of the typological approach believe that when we come into contact with representatives of any nationality, we sometimes compare their behavior and outlook, basing on their culture.
In the descriptive approach, certain manifestations and elements of culture are noted: customs, traditions, ideals, values, aspects of communication, etc. The symbolic approach which in a certain extent is similar to the descriptive one is characterized by the fact that certain elements of culture acquire ethnic meaning and become symbols of nations. For example, fire, oil, tar, kamancha, the national ornament “buta”, the legendary Karabakh horse are symbols of the Azerbaijani people; rhythmic dances with castanets and bullfight – Spanish; red rose, golden harp and lion – British; nesting doll, samovar, balalaika, bastshoes, felt boots, brown bear – Russian; fan, kimono, sakura tree and crane – Japanese; sari, lotus and elephant –Indian, etc.
The informational approach focuses on the perception of culture as a “system for creating, storing, using and transmitting information. Culture is a system of signs used by a society in which social information is encrypted” [9; 35]. Culture is the social informational support of any society. In the hermeneutical approach, culture is treated “as a collection of texts, more precisely – a mechanism that creates a set of texts” [7; 28]. As to the normative approach, “culture is a set of norms and rules that regulate people's way of life” [11; 76].
Each above-mentioned approach is unique and significant in its own way. Each of the approaches contains important and essential features of the concept of “culture”. Much depends on how the researcher himself perceives and understands the culture. For some, culture is a “complex of spiritual and material values” created by people, for others – a tool that serves to form and develop relations between people and nations, for the third group, culture is a system of signs that are used by society, and in this system social information is encrypted, but for all of them, culture is “a set of rules regulating people's way of life and mentality”.
Speaking about the role of functional styles in the development of language and cultural relations it should be pointed out that the concept of style, as it is known, is not exclusively linguistic: it is used by literary critics, sociologists, political scientists, for example architectural style, musical style, literary style, behavior style, thinking style, leader style, negotiation style, clothing style and so on. Even the opinion is expressed that style and stylistics are not related not only to language, it is an independent discipline relating exclusively to the cycle of human sciences. In the case when the style is considered in the linguistic aspect, scientists also emphasize that the style is not related not only to the language, but to a person speaking this language.
Nowadays, there is a large number of diverse definitions of style, which are based on different ideas. The basis for distinguishing a style in a broad sense is a person and his activity. Y. Karaulov interprets the well-known metaphor “Style is a person” as a two-sided formula, “which includes an idea of a person, implementing a certain lifestyle, reflected in the style of language use, that is, unites the social-behavioral context with speech” [5; 22].
I.R. Galperin points out that “style is a phenomenon not of the objective, but of the subjective world, this is the phenomenon of the second, human nature, and in this capacity it belongs to the world of culture, that is, the world of things in the broad sense created by man” [13; 37]. N.K. Ryabtseva emphasizes that “... style is a phenomenon not only and not so much of language and speech, but of thinking” [10; 388].
The study of functional styles is one of the most important areas of linguistic stylistics, particularly important for studying functional and stylistic systems in such significant spheres of modern society as oratorical speech, scientific discourse, business communication and newspaper style. In modern linguistics, it is characterized by interest in communicative and functional aspects of the language, where one of the leading roles play functional styles of the language. Despite the existence of a large number of scientific papers dedicated to the problems of functional styles, boundaries of the functional styles are still not clearly marked, therefore issues, concerning their investigation remain controversial and debatable. In modern scientific literature is widely used the definition of a functional style as “it is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style” . In the most general form, the basics of functional style were laid in the 20-30s, first of all, by M.M. Bakhtin, V.V. Vinogradov, G.O. Vinokur.
The main principles of this direction are related to extralinguistic reality, and the attention of researchers was aimed not only at the functioning of the language within the language system, but at the same time on the patterns of language, functioning under the influence of extralinguistic factors, the consideration of speech behavior as purposeful activity, the desire to study the diversity of forms and types of speech communication. Linguists, starting exploring the functional diversity of speech and seeking to embrace it perhaps more fully, research various concepts (poetic and practical language, language and speech styles, verbal and written means of expression, etc.). That is what the scientists tried to do in the following decades.
One of the aims of stylistics was to reorient research of language resources on the principles of its use. From that time, the theoretical foundations of functional styles are being developed, determined a common approach to stylistic analysis. Some researchers point out to style distinctions in the language, to the fact that “A variety of uses of the literary language leads to its functional and stylistic differentiation” . The style is determined as a kind of literary language, each style is intended to communication in a certain sphere of human activity. Thus, functional style is a set of language means inherent in one or a different area of life, in different conditions of communication, different language means.
Extralinguistic factors, conditions in which language is used, affect the selection of speech means, the probability of the use of certain rules, grammatical forms and constructions, i.e. form the system of functional styles. Functional style differentiation of the language interacts with forms (written and oral) and types (monological and dialogical) of its implementation, i.e. forms and types of speech. It indicates a double system of language, defining originality of the functional style. The first reflects the structure of the language, the second - the speech situation. On the one hand, functional styles have certain stability, but on the other hand, they are dynamic, i.e. can adapt to new forms and content of information exchange.
Taking into consideration that in every culture there is a perfect image of a person, an integral linguistic personality, exactly through this national personality the cultural-national type of man is discerned. Identification of the essence and integrity of the individual is associated with his or her historical consideration, since the basic parameters of the individual throughout history have been subjected to various modifications. Personality as a product of its era is able to represent common interests and ideas and to manage people in the name of common principles, to lead, teach and educate them. But a simple description of a person is not linguocultural, unless you describe and represent it through language, in its most linguistic realization.
We can state that the development of any individual from the “candidate in people” to the personality occurs with the direct and active participation of the language, and this indicates an extremely important role of the linguistic factor in the process of socialization. Hence, a conscious, purposeful demand for intervention is emerging in this process, corresponding to the developmental interests of both the individual and society. Of course, in conditions where a progressive language policy is introduced, this intervention does not serve to eliminate the individuality of the language, but provides for the provision of a socio-linguistic condition, for the possession of culture and linguistic resources through social environment, that is to some extent necessary for the successful life of every personality.
While characterizing the personality of the speaker, we are basing on the fact that any linguistic personality is a member of the so-called cultural and linguistic community, and here the speaker's language performs a kind of cultural and national function, and the speaker "plays a role" of a linguistic personality, who has both individual qualities and a certain advantage, characterized by the traditions of the nation and the cultural and linguistic environment.
The social environment of the speaker's personality is characterized by a complex of social relations and a living environment. Basing on the fact that the personality of the speaker can be regarded as a stable integrity of social and mental qualities, as a totality of social relations, it is necessary to describe it in practical activities. The speaker's language and speech are human activities, since the language is fully and completely perceived as a historical asset of the people, and speech is the common creation of people speaking this language.
As for the analysis of the linguistic personality at a pragmatic stage, it should be noted here that this analysis is characterized by the study of the expressive means used in the speech of the speaker. Here, special attention is paid to the skills of the speaker to apply all kinds of stylistic devices for uttering interesting, informative and sapid speech. Taking into account the fact that the actor's shade is often found in the image of the speaker, the pragmatic roles played by the speaker are also being researched, which, in essence, are different variations of speech behavior that contribute to the acceptance of an audience of correctly constructed and stylistically literate speech.
In the process of its development, the personality is perceived simultaneously as an object, and subject of social relations. Personality, both as an object and as a subject, represents a system of deterministic functions, belongs to an established social group and takes its place in the general life process. The position of the linguistic personality concepts, the main “cultural” elements are revealed in the linguistic-cognitive stage. In this case, through the concept, the speaker penetrates into culture, influences the culture of the nation and promotes the upbringing of people around. Through the concepts one can anticipate the individuality and originality of the speaker, his view of life, the world, and the essence of his soul.
Thus, we can emphasize that personality of the speaker is, first of all, speech, because, naturally, the speaker makes a speech when speaking. The personality of the speaker is also communicative because sometimes the speaker comes into contact with his audience during his education and communicates with it, asking it questions and discussing with the audience these or those problems. The personality of the speaker is, finally, the dictionary, because the speaker is the bearer of a certain language, the representative of a particular nation, the member of a particular society, the owner of a particular culture.
The analysis of existing works allows us to state for the most part their peculiarities (with the scientific experience already accumulated in this field), which give a comprehensive judgment about speech styles as a systemic phenomenon that lies at the intersection of various cognitive notions and acts as a cultural universal. A rational combination of the presented approaches in the study of cultural and language functioning implies taking into account the globalization processes, revealing the nature of the modern reality, social, political, economic, cultural semantics of the world order.
As a result of our investigation we managed:
-to identify the active role of speech styles in the formation of thinking and culture;
-to enter the ideas about the language in the context of civilizational, historical and cultural concepts of the selected time period;
-to observe their relationship when relying on comparative historical and typological studies;
-to analyze the philosophical and semiological experience from the linguistic and cultural position in the aspect of the ontological category of language relying on the material of functional styles in its correlation with linguistic expression;
-to explore communicative and integrative approaches in the process of developing intercultural relations;
-among the numerous functions of speech styles, the function of intercultural interaction, promoting cultural integration in the modern contextual space, should be considered the most significant one.
In our research paper, it has been confirmed that it is advisable to use the ideas of linguistic, cultural, communicative and semiological approaches while studying the impact of functional styles on intercultural language relations. This implies a basis for cross-cultural, ethnic interaction, permeability, which takes into account the peculiarities of the dialogue of cultures in a historically determined context. It has been established that the influence of language on the national culture is one of the most significant factors.
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